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Edited by Tahir Farooq, Department of Applied Chemistry, Government College University, Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ISBN 978-969-7818-00-6

1st Edition, 116 pages, December 2017/ Hardback      30$/ 3325PKR

Print on demand (at least 50 copies) for soft/hard copies send demand on editor_isisnet@yahoo.co.uk



Main Description

The manual has been designed to make student understand the basic concepts in organic chemistry with practical approach. The students have always been involved learning about basic chemical reactions with theoretical mechanistic aspects. Students should have learnt about organic oxidations, reductions, nucleophilic and electrophilic additions and substitutions etc. In this manual, the relevant practical activities have been included to make students grasp aforementioned concept on practical basis.

The manual has been divided into following chapters,

Identification of unknown organic compounds

Organic synthesis

Synthetic dyes

Lab-scale synthesis of heterocyclic compounds

In the first chapter, the students are supposed to learn about different identification tests. The chemistry of each identification test has been well explained mechanistically so the students could comprehend what really happens in the test tube. 

The second chapter is meant to make students familiar with basic organic conversions, identification and isolation of products. The students are given comprehensive concepts about the extraction, separation and isolation techniques.   

The third chapter has been designed to make students recognize the applied aspects of synthetic organic chemistry. Students are supposed to learn the basic reaction concepts for the synthesis of textile dyes.

The forth chapter explains the lab-scale synthesis of heterocycles in shortest possible time. The students are supposed to learn about handling the sensitive reaction conditions.


Table of contents

 Chapter 1 1
1 Identification of Unknown Organic Compound 1
1.1 Element Detection in Organic Compounds 1
1.2 Detection of Functional Groups 5
Chapter 2 20
2 Organic Synthesis 20
2.1 Dehydration 20
2.1.1 Experiment 1: Preparation of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol 20
2.2 Nucleophilic Substitution 23
2.2.1 Experiment 2: The preparation of tertiary butyl chloride (2-chloro-2-methylpropane) 23
2.2.2 Experiment 3: Preparation of the benzoate of phenol 26
2.2.3 Experiment 4: Preparation of aspirin 28
2.3 Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds 31
2.3.1 Experiment 5: Synthesis of Benzamide 31
2.4 Nucleophilic Additions 34
2.4.1 Experiment 6: Synthesis of Triphenylmethanol 34
2.5 Oxidation of Organic Compounds 37
2.5.1 Experiment 7: Preparation of Adipic Acid from Cyclohexene. 37
2.5.2 Experiment 8: Synthesis of Cyclohexanone and Adipic Acid from Oxidation of Cyclohexanol 40
2.6 Electrophilic Substitution Reactions 44
2.6.1 Experiment 9: Nitration of Phenol 44
2.6.2 Experiment 10: Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Benzene 47
2.6.3 Experiment 11: Friedel-Craft’s Alkylation 49
2.7 Nucleophilic Substitutions at Benzene 52
2.7.1 Experiment 12: Synthesis of o-Chlorobenzoic Acid 52
Chapter 3 56
3 Synthetic Dyes 56
3.1 Experiment 1: Synthesis of Orange II Dyes from Sulfanilic Acid and 2-Naphthol 56
3.2 Experiment 2: Synthesis of Methyl Orange from Sulfanilic Acid and N,N-Dimethylaniline 59
3.3 Experiment 3: Synthesis of Para Red Dye from para-Nitroaniline and 2-Naphthol 62
3.4 Experiment 4: Synthesis of Azo-Dyes Using H-acid and Aniline 65
3.5 Experiment 5: Synthesis of Azo-Dyes Using H-acid and N,N-Dimethylaniline 69
3.6 Experiment 6: Synthesis of Azo-Dyes from J-acid and Benzidine 72
3.7 Experiment 7: Synthesis of Congo Red as Direct dye 75
3.8 Experiment 8: Synthesis of Indigo Vat Dye 78
3.9 Experiment 9: Synthesize Malachite Green as Cationic Dyes 81
3.10 Experiment 10: Synthesis of Cationic Dye Crystal Violet 84
Chapter 4 88
4 Lab-scale Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds 88
4.1 Experiment 1: Preparation of Dihydropyrimidine Derivatives 88
4.2 Experiment 2: Synthesis of 3-Carbethoxycoumarin 91
4.3 Experiment 3: Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Pyrrole 94
4.4 Experiment 4: Nickle-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction 97
4.5 Experiment 5: Synthesis of Benzimidazole 100
4.6 Experiment 6: Synthesis of Succinic Anhydride 103
5 Appendices 107
5.1 Getting Ready for Laboratory 107
5.1.1 Laboratory's rules 107
5.2 Introduction to the laboratory 108
5.2.1 Laboratory Safety 108

Editor/author Bio

Dr. Farooq got his doctoral degree in synthetic medicinal chemistry from the University of Bergen, Norway under the supervision of Dr. Bengt Erik Haug and Dr. Leiv K. Sydnes (former President of IUPAC). He has a strong background in synthetic chemistry with a solid grip on modern synthetic techniques. He holds a comprehensive hand-on expertise on modern techniques like GC, GC-MS, HPLC (both analytical and preparative instruments), NMR (1D and 2D techniques).

The author is interested to introduce books and lab manuals on organic chemistry, advanced analytical instruments and modern spectroscopic techniques for undergraduate and postgraduate students. Especially for those who are beginners in such fields. The introduction of this laboratory manual is an example of such much-anticipated efforts in near future.

This lab manual is designed to polish student’s basic concepts in synthetic organic chemistry. They are supposed to apply the ever-explained reaction mechanisms on practical basis. They should learn to execute various reactions under sensitive reaction conditions. The color chemistry chapter has been introduced to make student apply their knowledge on industrial applications.

The author welcomes sane suggestions and or healthy criticism for the perfection of this manual.



Dr. Sarosh Iqbal is a Synthetic Medicinal Chemist who got her doctoral degree from H.E.J Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical & Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan in 2014. During her doctoral study, she was awarded a prestigious Commonwealth split-Ph.D. scholarship tenable at University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. (2012-2013) and gained expertise in polymer chemistry. During her educational career she has won many awards and honors, for instance, distinction in B.S (2007); M.Phil (course work) (2009); 85 %ile in international (Subject) GRE (2010) (A record breaking marks). She joined Government College University, Faisalabad in 2014 as an Assistant professor. Her area of research includes synthesis of medicinally important compounds and modification of polymers..



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