Journal publishes original, peer-reviewed articles,
review papers and short communications within scope of journal. Original
articles report innovative and core scientific knowledge. Review articles are
comprehensive, scientifically accurate summaries of topics dealing with areas of
current relevance and emerging scientific concepts. Review articles are taken by
invitation or approved submission after query by author (s). By invitation:
Editorial staff will invite qualified person(s) to write a review article on a
selected topic. By author query: Before a review article can be submitted for
peer review and possible publication, a proposal and outline of the article must
be submitted to, and approved by, the editor. The proposal should include: 1) a
detailed outline of the content of the proposed review; 2) a general idea of the
amount of original literature to be summarized; and 3) the background of the
author(s) supporting his/her expertise in the area to be discussed in the
review. It is anticipated that the author(s) will have worked and published in
the area of the review. The author should also state why he/she feels this
particular review is suited for journal and why the review article would appeal
to the readership.
Short communications must fit into two printed pages; this is
approximately equivalent to 2000 words (including abstract (200 words), text,
acknowledgements, references (<25), and figure legends) plus one small single
column figure and one small single column table. DNA sequences should be
deposited in one of the genetic databases.
Special Issues containing reviews and original articles in a specified
subject area are published at intervals. Reviews should not be encyclopaedic,
will ideally contain the author's views and be pitched at a level that will
appeal to the non-specialist as well as those who work in the field. If original
articles are submitted for a Special Issue, then the Introduction should be
longer than usual to help orientate the reader within the field, and the
Discussion should also help to explain the context of the work.
SUBMISSION: Manuscripts should be submitted in electronic format via
e-mail only, and should be presented in accordance with the guidelines for
authors. All manuscripts should be accompanied by a covering letter. Manuscripts
should be sent to: firstname.lastname@example.org
ORGANIZATION OF MANUSCRIPTS: Style and format. Manuscripts should be
written in simple declarative sentences and must conform to accepted standards
of English style and usage. Authors whose first language is not English are
requested to have their manuscripts checked carefully for linguistic correctness
before submission. Submit manuscript with elements arranged in the following
order, numbering all pages consecutively. Double-space all material. Font:
Arial, size 12.
Page 1: (1) Short running title not to exceed 60 characters and spaces;
(2) name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of author to
whom all correspondence should be sent; (3) and one major (e.g. cell biology)
and specific (e.g. cell death) research area most appropriate for the paper.
Page 2: (1) Title of article (2) all authors' full names, affiliations,
E-mail addresses; (3) abstract, Key words (<7). Page 3 and subsequent pages
contain paper body which should be divided into: 1) Introduction; 2) Materials
and Methods; 3) Results; 4) Discussion (if discussion is short, the Results and
Discussion sections may be combined); 5) Acknowledgments; 6) References; 7)
Figure and Tables.
Abstract (<250 words) should succinctly and clearly present the major
significant results of the investigation and conclusions there from.
Introduction should state the purpose of the investigation with
imperative references to relevant previous works (<10,000 characters).
Materials and Methods: The description of the methods should be as short
as possible but adequate for repetition of the work by a qualified investigator.
The metric system is standard, and SI units must be used as much as possible.
Use the negative index system instead, i.e. mmol m-2 s-1. Statistical methods
should be identified.
The “Results” are usually presented in figures and tables; some results
that do not need documentation can be given in the text. Figures and Tables:
Provide each figure (JPG) and table with a short, concise title followed by a
legend that will make the general meaning of the figure or table comprehensible
without reference to the text. Number figures and tables in order of citation in
text with Arabic numerals (1,2,3…).
The “Discussion” should deal with interpretation and not with
recapitulation of the results. Use of a simple and pictorial scheme to
illustrate the major results is encouraged. Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments of
assistance and financial support should be stated briefly at the end of the
References: Cite all references in text by last names and year of
publication for example: (Hao, 2003) or Hameed (2003); (Shen and Ma, 2001) or
Shen and Ma (2001). Text citations should be arranged from the earliest to most
recent year, alphabetized by name within the same year. If several papers by the
same author in the same year are cited, they should be lettered in sequence
(2000a, b), etc. When papers are by more than two authors they should be cited
thus: (Kao et al. 2004).
For entries in "References" section, alphabetize by authors' last names and
follow the styles below exactly for capitalization, punctuation, and order of
elements. The accuracy in the " References " section is the responsibility of
the authors. The Journal will only proofread references for format.
Journal articles: Author (last name) AB (initials),
Author BB, 2004. Title of Article. Plant Physiol 59: 45-59.
Book: Author AB, Author BB, Author CC, 2004. Title
of Book, Ed 2 Vol 3. Publisher, City, Country, pp 14-19.
Book articles: Author AB, Author BB, Author CC,
2004. Title of article. In A Smith, B Jones, eds, Title of Book, Ed 2 Vol 3.
Publisher, City, Country, pp 14-19.
Theses: Author BC, 1974. Title of thesis. PhD
thesis. University, City, Country.
Online: Author A, 2004. Title. Source Title. http://www.utopia.com/talent/lpb/muddex/essay
Accessed 4 May 2004.
Patent Author B, Author BC, inventors. January 1,
1997. Endogenous nonstarch polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzymes. European Patent
Application No. XXX
Proceedings: Author AB, Author BB, Author CC, 2004.
Title of article. In A Smith, B Jones, eds, Title of proceedings, Ed 2 Vol 3.
Publisher, City, Country, pp 14-19.
Write out in full all one-word journal titles. Use
the BIOSIS List of Serials for abbreviations of multiple-word journal titles;
write out in full the names of journals not listed there.
PEER REVIEW PROCESS: Manuscripts are reviewed by two independent experts
in the particular area and are sent blank to avoid any biased evaluation.
Proofs: Submitted manuscripts must be
considered as final texts to which no changes should be made at the proof stage
apart from correction to printer's errors. The managing editor will send the
page proofs to the author by e-mail as PDF file. Proofs must be returned to the
publishers by e-mail within 48 hours of receipt.
FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS: Page charges are assessed for all kinds of
articles to help defray the costs.
Article Processing Fee is Flat US $ 100
papers of any page length.
is only payable if the paper is accepted after peer review. Journal has no
submission fee. Unless otherwise specified, it will be assumed that
the corresponding author is responsible for payment. The publishers supply a PDF
file of paper for unlimited off prints.
Publication Ethics and Malpractice
The journal is committed to maintaining the highest level of integrity in the
content published. This journal has a Conflict of Interest policy in place.
Currently the journal is not a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics
(COPE) but will soon apply for its membership. However we follow its principles
on how to deal with acts of misconduct thereby committing to investigate
allegations of misconduct in order to ensure the integrity of research. The
journal takes issues relating to publication ethics very seriously. We strictly
follow the guidelines and best practice recommendations published by the
Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Authors are expected to abide by ethical standards in regards to the attribution
of authorship, conflicts of interest, respect of ethical considerations in the
use of experimental animal and human participants, financial support disclosures
and participation in the peer review process. Additionally, cases of invalid or
fraudulent data, plagiarism and dual submissions will constitute grounds for
The journal may use plagiarism detection software to screen the submissions. If
plagiarism is identified, the COPE guidelines on plagiarism will be followed.
Content published in this journal is peer reviewed. For details about the peer
review process please visit our page for it.
Innovative Scientific Information and Services network applies the Creative
Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish.
Authors of articles published in Frontiers journals retain copyright on their
articles, except for any third-party images and other materials added by
Innovative Scientific Information and Services network, which are subject to
copyright of their respective owners. If you submit your paper for publication
by Innovative Scientific Information and Services network, you agree to have the
CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the
author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any
purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or
reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited.
This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that published content can
be mined without barriers for the needs of research.
Corrections to published articles. If necessary, corrections of
significant errors in published articles will be published in a later issue of
the Journal. Within two months after publication, authors are requested to bring
any errors to the attention of the managing editor.